MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary target regions on gene transcripts. Thus, miRNAs fine-tune gene expression profiles in a cell-type-specific manner and thereby regulate important cellular functions, such as cell growth, proliferation and cell death. MiRNAs are frequently dysregulated in cancer cells by several mechanisms, which significantly affect the course of the disease. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on how dysregulated miRNAs contribute to cancer and how miRNAs can be exploited as predictive factors and therapeutic targets, particularly in regard to immune-checkpoint inhibitor therapies.
Keywords: anti-CTLA-4; anti-PD-1; anti-PD-L1; immune-checkpoint blockade; immune-checkpoint inhibitor; ipilimumab; miRNA; microRNA; nivolumab; predictive.