The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate alloplastic Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Prostheses against other treatment modalities regarding the jaw kinematics. Six patients with Temporomandibular Joint Prostheses, four with mandibular ramus Patient-Specific Implant (PSI) with condylar head preservation, and four after mandibular condylectomy were evaluated by the means of axiography (Cadiax Compact 2), which is the noninvasive three-dimensional study of condylar movements. The patients were also evaluated clinically for the mandibular movements. The study revealed that the significant movement limitations occurred bilaterally in patients fitted with TMJ prosthesis. For the protrusion movement, the vector length of the movement (L) for the TMJ prosthesis was 0.31 vs. 3.01 mm for the PSI (Kruskal-Wallis chi-squared = 9.1667, df = 2, p-value = 0.01022, post hoc Dunn p-value = 0.015) and for the laterotrusion to the operated side, the length of the vector (L) was 0.66 vs. 3.35 mm, respectively. Statistically significant differences between groups were most frequent for the laterotrusion to the unoperated side. The study shows that a further development on TMJ Prostheses geometry and materials is needed.
Keywords: biomechanics; mandibular motion; prosthesis; replacement; temporomandibular joint.