Chagas disease is a major neglected tropical disease, transmitted predominantly by triatomine insect vectors, but also through congenital and oral routes. While endemic in the Americas, it has turned into a global disease. Because of the current drug treatment limitations, a vaccine would represent a major advancement for better control of the disease. Here, we review some of the rationale, advances, and challenges for the ongoing development of a vaccine against Chagas disease. Recent pre-clinical studies in murine models have further expanded (i) the range of vaccine platforms and formulations tested; (ii) our understanding of the immune correlates for protection; and (iii) the extent of vaccine effects on cardiac function, beyond survival and parasite burden. We further discuss outstanding issues and opportunities to move Chagas disease development forward in the near future.
Keywords: Trypanosoma cruzi; Trypanosomiasis; neglected tropical disease; parasite.