Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a pruritic allergic skin disease associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. IgE is detected using Serum Allergen-Specific IgE test (SAT) in order to identify allergens. The present study aims to identify the environmental allergens in atopic dogs living in Northern Italy using SAT. The screening SAT (sSAT), using a monoclonal antibody cocktail-based ELISA to identify indoor and outdoor allergens, was performed. In all positive samples, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody ELISA test was performed to extend panel of allergens. Out of 117 selected dogs, 69 were included in the study; 71% were positive and 29% were negative to sSAT. Among the 49 positive sSAT, 53% were positive for both indoor and outdoor, 38.8% only for indoor, and 8.2% only for outdoor allergens. This is the first study on the frequency of allergens involved in CAD in Italy using SAT. IgE hypersensitivity in atopic dogs of Northern Italy is usually associated with indoor allergens, primarily house dust mites. Among the outdoor allergens, an important role was played by Rumex acetosa. Polysensitization also commonly occurs. Therefore, since the numerous factors affect the IgE positivity in CAD, specific panels for geographical areas should be considered and re-evaluated at time intervals.
Keywords: IgE; Northern Italy; allergy testing; atopic dermatitis; dog; serology.