Issues in the analysis of repeated categorical outcomes

Stat Med. Jan-Feb 1988;7(1-2):95-107. doi: 10.1002/sim.4780070113.


This paper discusses statistical methods for the analysis of repeated observations of categorical variables as they might arise in longitudinal studies. Two general types of models are described: marginal models that give representations for the marginal distribution of response at each occasion, and transitional models that give representations for the transition probabilities between outcome states at successive occasions. The conceptual and technical differences are discussed and recent work advancing both approaches is reviewed. The two approaches are illustrated through analysis of repeated observations on interval history of the respiratory symptom 'persistent wheeze' in preadolescent children.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Asthma / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Markov Chains
  • Models, Biological
  • Probability
  • Statistics as Topic*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution