Modification of the effects of intensive systolic blood pressure control on kidney outcomes by baseline body mass index

Nephrology (Carlton). 2021 Apr;26(4):303-311. doi: 10.1111/nep.13857. Epub 2021 Feb 23.


Aim: Obesity and intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) control are independently associated with greater risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined whether baseline body mass index (BMI) modifies the effects of intensive SBP lowering on AKI or incident CKD.

Methods: The systolic blood pressure intervention trial (SPRINT) randomized 9361 participants with high blood pressure to an SBP target of either <120 mm Hg or < 140 mm Hg. In a secondary analysis of 9210 SPRINT participants with a baseline BMI of ≥18.5 and < 50 kg/m2 , we examined the interactions of baseline BMI and SPRINT SBP intervention on subsequent AKI and incident CKD.

Results: Each 5 kg/m2 increase in baseline BMI was associated with higher risk of AKI (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.25) and incident CKD (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.32). Intensive SBP control increased the risk of AKI (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.22-2.11) and incident CKD (HR 3.49, 95% CI 2.47-4.94). The increased risk of AKI with intensive SBP control was consistent across the baseline BMI spectrum (linear interaction p = 0.55); however, the risk of incident CKD with SPRINT intervention increased with higher BMI (linear interaction p = 0.043).

Conclusion: The increased risk of adverse kidney events seen with intensive SBP control in the SPRINT persisted across the baseline BMI spectrum. A higher baseline BMI was associated with an augmented risk of incident CKD with intensive SBP control.

Keywords: BP control; Body weight; Kidney outcomes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects*
  • Blood Pressure*
  • Body Mass Index*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / etiology*


  • Antihypertensive Agents