Short-Term Outcomes of Transcatheter Versus Isolated Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement for Mediastinal Radiation-Associated Severe Aortic Stenosis

Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2021 Feb;14(2):e010009. doi: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.010009. Epub 2021 Feb 5.


Background: Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with radiation-associated aortic stenosis. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may improve outcomes in this population.

Methods: We evaluated 1668 TAVR and 2611 patients with SAVR enrolled in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' database between 2011 and 2018. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare 30- day outcomes between TAVR and SAVR. Propensity-matched analysis was performed to confirm results of the overall cohort. Additionally, the cohort was stratified into early (2011-2014) versus contemporary (2015-2018) TAVR eras, and 30-day outcomes for TAVR and SAVR were compared. Finally, outcomes with transfemoral TAVR versus SAVR were compared.

Results: In the overall cohort, TAVR was associated with significantly reduced 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR]TAVR/SAVR=0.60 [0.40-0.91]). Postoperative atrial fibrillation, pneumonia, pleural effusion, renal failure, and bleeding also occurred less frequently with TAVR. Stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA; ORTAVR/SAVR, 2.03 [1.09-3.77]) and pacemaker implantation (ORTAVR/SAVR, 1.62 [1.21-2.17]) were higher with TAVR. Propensity-matched analysis yielded similar results as the overall cohort. Following stratification by era, TAVR versus SAVR was associated with reduced 30-day mortality in the contemporary but not early era (OREarly, 0.78 [0.48-1.28]; ORContemporary, 0.31 [0.14-0.65]). Pacemaker implantation was higher with TAVR versus SAVR in both eras (OREarly, 1.60 [1.03-2.46]; ORContemporary, 1.64 [1.10-2.45]). There was also a nonsignificant trend towards increased stroke/TIA with TAVR during both eras (OREarly, 1.39 [0.58-3.36]; ORContemporary, 2.46 [0.99-6.10]). Finally, transfemoral TAVR (N=1369) versus SAVR revealed similar findings as the overall cohort; however, the association of TAVR with stroke/TIA was not statistically significant (ORStroke/TIA, 1.57 [0.79-3.09]).

Conclusions: TAVR provides an effective and evolving alternative to SAVR for radiation-associated severe aortic stenosis and was associated with lower 30-day mortality and postoperative complications. TAVR was associated with increased pacemaker implantation and a trend towards increased stroke/TIA. In this unique population with extensive valvular and vascular calcifications, the risk of stroke/TIA with TAVR requires careful consideration and further investigation.

Keywords: abnormalities, radiation-induced; aortic valve stenosis; cardiac surgical procedure; ischemic attack, transient; mortality; pacemaker, artificial; transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Valve / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / surgery
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation*
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome