There is an urgent need for novel vaccination strategies to combat respiratory pathogens. Mucosal vaccine delivery is an attractive option as it directly targets the site of infection; however, preclinical development has been hindered by a lack of suitable mucosal adjuvants and a limited understanding of their immune effects in the lung environment. Herein, we define the early immune events following the intrapulmonary delivery of a vaccine incorporating the adjuvant delta-inulin. Analysis of the early inflammatory response showed vaccine-induced innate cell recruitment to lungs and local lymph nodes (LN) was transient and non-polarised, correlating with an increase in pulmonary chemotactic factors. Use of fluorescently labelled adjuvant revealed widespread tissue dissemination of adjuvant particles, coupled with broad cellular uptake and transit to the lung-draining LN by a range of innate immune cells. Mass cytometric analysis revealed extensive phenotypic changes in innate and adaptive cell subsets induced by vaccination; this included identification of unconventional lymphocytes such as γδ-T cells and MAIT cells that increased following vaccination and displayed an activated phenotype. This study details a comprehensive view of the immune response to intrapulmonary adjuvant administration and provides pre-clinical evidence to support delta-inulin as a suitable adjuvant for pulmonary vaccines.