Creatinine and C-reactive protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease

Brain Commun. 2020 Sep 18;2(2):fcaa152. doi: 10.1093/braincomms/fcaa152. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Serum creatinine and C-reactive protein have been proposed as potential biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. However, longitudinal studies investigating temporal patterns of these biomarkers, including the phase before diagnosis, are rare. We performed a case-control study including all newly diagnosed patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (N = 525), multiple sclerosis (N = 1815) or Parkinson's disease (N = 3797) during 2006-2013 in Stockholm, Sweden, who participated in the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements (SCREAM) project. For each case, we randomly selected up to five controls from SCREAM that were individually matched to the case by age, sex and county of residence (N = 2625 for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, N = 9063 for multiple sclerosis and 18 960 for Parkinson's disease). We collected for both the cases and the controls testing results of serum creatinine and C-reactive protein performed by healthcare providers in Stockholm during the study period. Median levels of creatinine and C-reactive protein were visualized using locally weighted smoothing curves among cases and controls. A linear mixed model was also applied to explore temporal changes within an individual. Compared to controls, patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis had lower levels of creatinine from 2 years before diagnosis onwards. In contrast, patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis had lower levels of C-reactive protein before diagnosis but higher levels after diagnosis, compared to controls. Focusing the 2 years before to 2 years after diagnosis, patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis displayed statistically significantly decreasing level of creatinine from 1 year before diagnosis until 2 years after diagnosis, whereas increasing level of C-reactive protein from diagnosis until 2 years after diagnosis. There were no similar patterns noted among patients with multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease, or the controls of the three patient groups. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis display distinct temporal patterns of creatinine and C-reactive protein before and after diagnosis, compared to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-free controls or patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

Keywords: C-reactive protein; creatinine; neurodegenerative diseases; temporal pattern.