Natural dye from Caesalpinia sappan L. heartwood for eco-friendly coloring of recycled paper based packing material and its in silico toxicity analysis

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Feb 5. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-11827-4. Online ahead of print.


The uses of natural dyes are getting popularized due to the increased awareness regarding the toxicity of many chemical colorants. The chemical colorants are being replaced by the natural colorants for the various industrial applications. The plant-based natural colorants are considered eco-friendly and toxic free. In the present study, we report a natural dye from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan suitable for paper based packing materials. This forms the first report on the study of natural dye obtained from the heartwood of C. sappan on paper material. The extracted dye had a good photostability and able to make imprints on recycled paper bags. Moreover, a significant inhibition of bacterial growth was observed at a higher dye concentration of 100 μg mL-1 against P. aeruginosa which was higher than the standard antibiotics. Growth inhibition was also observed in case of B. subtilis (22 ± 0.17 mm) and K. pneumonia (21 ± 0.53 mm) at 100 μg mL-1. The dye could be used in making medicated packing materials and have many other bio-potential which was validated through in silico toxicity analysis. The application of such natural dyes in paper material value addition will help in a cleaner and sustainable process during paper recycling.

Keywords: Bactericidal; Natural colorant; Recycled paper; Sappan wood; Stability.