Background: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) regulates cellular functions through the protein deacetylation activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent sirtuins (SIRTs). SIRTs regulate functions of histones and none-histone proteins. The role of NAMPT/SIRT pathway in the regulation of maintenance and differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is not fully elucidated.
Methods: We evaluated the effects of specific inhibitors of NAMPT or SIRT2 on the pluripotency, proliferation, survival, and hematopoietic differentiation of human iPS cells. We also studied the molecular mechanism downstream of NAMPT/SIRTs in iPS cells.
Results: We demonstrated that NAMPT is indispensable for the maintenance, survival, and hematopoietic differentiation of iPS cells. We found that inhibition of NAMPT or SIRT2 in iPS cells induces p53 protein by promoting its lysine acetylation. This leads to activation of the p53 target, p21, with subsequent cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in iPS cells. NAMPT and SIRT2 inhibition also affect hematopoietic differentiation of iPS cells in an embryoid body (EB)-based cell culture system.
Conclusions: Our data demonstrate the essential role of the NAMPT/SIRT2/p53/p21 signaling axis in the maintenance and hematopoietic differentiation of iPS cells.
Keywords: Hematopoietic differentiation of iPSCs; NAMPT/SIRT2 pathway; iPSC maintenance; p21 activation; p53 deacetylation.