Background and aims: The number of procedures performed by internal medicine residents in the United States (US) is declining. An increasing proportion of residents do not feel confident performing essential invasive bedside procedures and, upon graduation, desire additional training. Several residency programs have utilized the medical procedure service (MPS) to address this issue. We aim to summarize the current state of evidence by systematically evaluating the effect of the MPS on resident education, comfort, and training, as well as patient safety and procedural outcomes in the US.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review of all studies reporting the use of an MPS with supervision from a board-certified physician in internal medicine residencies in the US. Database search was performed on PubMed, Embase, ERIC, and Cochrane Library from January 2000 to November 2020 for relevant studies. Quality of evidence assessment and random-effects proportion meta-analyses were performed.
Results: A total of nine studies reporting on 3879 procedures performed by MPS were identified. Procedures were safely performed, with a pooled complication rate of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.0-3.5) and generally successful, with a pooled success rate of 94.7% (95% CI: 90.8-97.7). The range of procedures performed by residents under MPS was 6.7-72.8 procedures per month (n = 9) compared to 4.3-64.4 procedures (n = 4) without MPS. MPS significantly increased confidence, comfort, and use of appropriate safety measures among residents.
Conclusion: There are a limited number of published studies on MPS supervised by a board-certified physician in US internal medicine residencies. Procedures performed by MPS are generally successfully completed and safe. MPS benefits internal medicine residents training by improving competency, comfort, and confidence.
Keywords: internal medicine residency; medical procedure service; meta-analysis; systematic review; teaching.
© 2021. Society of General Internal Medicine.