Aims: As reported, hypertension may play an important role in adverse outcomes of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), but it still had many confounding factors. The aim of this study was to explore whether hypertension is an independent risk factor for critical COVID-19 and mortality.
Data synthesis: The Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched until November 2020. Combined odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence interval (CIs) were calculated by using random-effect models, and the effect of covariates was analyzed using the subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis. A total of 24 observational studies with 99,918 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The proportions of hypertension in critical COVID-19 were 37% (95% CI: 0.27 -0.47) when compared with 18% (95% CI: 0.14 -0.23) of noncritical COVID-19 patients, in those who died were 46% (95%CI: 0.37 -0.55) when compared with 22% (95% CI: 0.16 -0.28) of survivors. Pooled results based on the adjusted OR showed that patients with hypertension had a 1.82-fold higher risk for critical COVID-19 (aOR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.19 - 2.77; P = 0.005) and a 2.17-fold higher risk for COVID-19 mortality (aOR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.67 - 2.82; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis results showed that male patients had a higher risk of developing to the critical condition than female patients (OR: 3.04; 95%CI: 2.06 - 4.49; P < 0.001) and age >60 years was associated with a significantly increased risk of COVID-19 mortality (OR: 3.12; 95% CI: 1.93 - 5.05; P < 0.001). Meta-regression analysis results also showed that age (Coef. = 2.3×10-2, P = 0.048) had a significant influence on the association between hypertension and COVID-19 mortality.
Conclusions: Evidence from this meta-analysis suggested that hypertension was independently associated with a significantly increased risk of critical COVID-19 and inhospital mortality of COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19; Critical illness; Hypertension; Meta-analysis; Mortality.
Copyright © 2020 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.