Training in the practice of noninvasive brain stimulation: Recommendations from an IFCN committee

Clin Neurophysiol. 2021 Mar;132(3):819-837. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2020.11.018. Epub 2020 Dec 3.


As the field of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) expands, there is a growing need for comprehensive guidelines on training practitioners in the safe and effective administration of NIBS techniques in their various research and clinical applications. This article provides recommendations on the structure and content of this training. Three different types of practitioners are considered (Technicians, Clinicians, and Scientists), to attempt to cover the range of education and responsibilities of practitioners in NIBS from the laboratory to the clinic. Basic or core competencies and more advanced knowledge and skills are discussed, and recommendations offered regarding didactic and practical curricular components. We encourage individual licensing and governing bodies to implement these guidelines.

Keywords: Guidelines; Noninvasive brain stimulation; Training; Transcranial electric stimulation; Transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain / physiology*
  • Clinical Competence* / standards
  • Humans
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic* / standards
  • Stereotaxic Techniques / education
  • Stereotaxic Techniques / standards
  • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation / methods*
  • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation / standards
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation / methods*
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation / standards