Vascular Access Complications and Clinical Outcomes of Vascular Surgical Repairs Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)

Ann Vasc Surg. 2021 Jul;74:258-263. doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2020.12.032. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Abstract

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures have revolutionized the treatment of aortic stenosis. However, due to large sheaths, improperly deployed closure devices, and the comorbidities and challenges innate to this population, vascular access complications can be devastating. The objective of this study is to evaluate vascular access complications in one of the largest TAVI sites in North America.

Methods: This was a retrospective single center review between January 2014 and December 2018 of vascular access complications necessitating operative intervention by vascular surgery. Patient demographics and preoperative comorbidities were collected. Type of vascular access complication, types of repair, closure device used, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed.

Results: A total of 37 cases out of a total of 985 TAVI procedures were identified. TAVI was carried out in the operating suite (70%) or the catheterization lab (30%). Consults to vascular surgery were requested intraoperatively (60%), immediately postoperative (14%), later in the day of the TAVI (20%), and on postoperative day 1 (6%). The location of injury included common femoral artery (49%), superficial femoral artery (11%) and external iliac artery (41%), with some cases injuring multiple vessels. Closure devices were found in the subcutaneous tissue (26%), anterior wall (37%), posterior wall (11%), intra-arterial (11%), closing the anterior to the posterior wall (16%), and in the inguinal ligament (5%). Injuries included tears (11%), dissections (38%), and vessel rupture (19%). The majority of repairs were done primarily (64%), with patch (28%) and bypass (8%) less frequently. Four patients died perioperatively (11%), 2 from hemorrhage, 1 from cardiac arrest, and 1 from progressive respiratory disease.

Conclusions: Access complications during TAVI procedures predispose complex patients to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Careful patient selection, proper access techniques, and performing high risk patients in the operating suite with vascular surgery are fundamental in minimizing complications.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / surgery*
  • British Columbia
  • Catheterization, Peripheral / adverse effects*
  • Catheterization, Peripheral / instrumentation
  • Clinical Decision-Making
  • Female
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis
  • Hemostatic Techniques / adverse effects*
  • Hemostatic Techniques / instrumentation
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Selection
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement / adverse effects*
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement / instrumentation
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Access Devices
  • Vascular Closure Devices
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures* / adverse effects
  • Vascular System Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Vascular System Injuries / etiology
  • Vascular System Injuries / surgery*