A comparison of characteristics and outcomes of patients with community-acquired and hospital-acquired COVID-19 in the United Kingdom: An observational study

Respir Med. 2021 Mar;178:106314. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2021.106314. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Reports comparing the characteristics of patients and their clinical outcomes between community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) COVID-19 have not yet been reported in the literature. We aimed to characterise and compare clinical, biochemical and haematological features, in addition to clinical outcomes, between these patients.

Methods: This multi-centre, retrospective, observational study enrolled 488 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients - 339 with CA infection and 149 with HA infection. All patients were admitted to a hospital within the University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust between March 7th and May 18th, 2020.

Results: The CA cohort comprised of a significantly younger population, median age 75 years, versus 80 years in the HA cohort (P = 0·0002). Significantly less patients in the HA group experienced fever (P = 0·03) and breathlessness (P < 0·0001). Furthermore, significantly more patients had anaemia and hypoalbuminaemia in the HA group, compared to the CA group (P < 0·0001 for both). Hypertension and a lower median BMI were also significantly more pronounced in the HA cohort (P = 0·03 and P = 0·0001, respectively). The mortality rate was not significantly different between the two cohorts (34% in the CA group and 32% in the HA group, P = 0·64). However, the CA group required significantly greater ICU care (10% versus 3% in the HA group, P = 0·009).

Conclusion: Hospital-acquired and community-acquired COVID-19 display similar rates of mortality despite significant differences in baseline characteristics of the respective patient populations. Delineation of community- and hospital-acquired COVID-19 in future studies on COVID-19 may allow for more accurate interpretation of results.

Keywords: COVID-19; Community-acquired; Hospital-acquired; SARS-CoV-2.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • COVID-19 / complications*
  • COVID-19 / diagnosis
  • COVID-19 / mortality*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / complications*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / diagnosis
  • Community-Acquired Infections / mortality*
  • Cross Infection / complications*
  • Cross Infection / diagnosis
  • Cross Infection / mortality*
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Symptom Assessment
  • United Kingdom
  • Young Adult