Introduction: COVID-19 induces a pro-thrombotic state as evidenced by microvascular thrombi in the renal and pulmonary vasculature. Therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 has been debated and data remain anecdotal. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that therapeutic anticoagulation is associated with a reduction in in-hospital mortality, upgrade to intensive care unit, invasive mechanical ventilation, and acute renal failure necessitating dialysis by decreasing the over-all clot burden. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done to determine the impact of therapeutic anticoagulation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Independent t-test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate mean differences and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) respectively. Results: A total of 176 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were divided into two groups, therapeutic anticoagulation and prophylactic anticoagulation. The mean age, baseline comorbidities and other medications used during hospitalization were similar in both groups. The aOR for in-hospital mortality (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.15-8.10, p = 0.04), upgrade to intensive care (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.43-6.64, p = 0.006) and invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 4.27, 95% CI 1.95-9.34, p = 0.00) were significantly lower while there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of developing acute renal failure (OR 1.87 95% CI 0.46-7.63, p = 0.64) between two groups. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19, therapeutic anticoagulation offers a significant reduction in the rate of in-hospital mortality, upgrade to intensive medical care, and invasive mechanical ventilation. It should be preferred over prophylactic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients unless randomized controlled trials prove otherwise.
Keywords: COVID-19; anticoagulation; thrombosis.
© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of Greater Baltimore Medical Center.