Urinary levels of phthalate esters and heavy metals in adolescents with thyroid colloid cysts

Int J Environ Health Res. 2022 Jun;32(6):1359-1372. doi: 10.1080/09603123.2021.1883554. Epub 2021 Feb 8.


We aimed to evaluate 14 urinary phthalate metabolites and 4 toxic metals in adolescents having thyroid colloid cyst (TCC) and compare with age and sex-matched others without TCC. Phthalate metabolites were analysed with UPLC-MS/MS and heavy metals with ICP-MS. TCC ratios in tertile subgroups of pollutants were compared with multiple logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, sex, z-scores for body mass index and urinary creatinine values. Adolescents having the highest tertile of mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalic acid and mercury had increased odds and those with the highest tertiles of monocarboxy-isononyl phthalate, mono (3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, monoisobutyl phthalate had lower odds for TCC than counterparts. The odds of TCC were lower for those in the second and the third tertiles. No differences in TCC ratios were detected with other pollutants. Given phthalate esters' and toxic metals' specific interactions on TCC, further studies were necessary to assess the influence of chemicals on TCC.

Keywords: Thyroid colloid cysts; adolescence; phthalate esters; toxic metals.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Colloid Cysts*
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis
  • Environmental Pollutants* / urine
  • Esters
  • Humans
  • Metals, Heavy* / analysis
  • Phthalic Acids* / urine
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Thyroid Gland / chemistry
  • Thyroid Gland / metabolism


  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Esters
  • Metals, Heavy
  • Phthalic Acids
  • phthalic acid