Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils: an update on lifespan kinetics in health and disease

Immunology. 2021 Jul;163(3):250-261. doi: 10.1111/imm.13320. Epub 2021 Mar 15.


Phagocytes form a family of immune cells that play a crucial role in tissue maintenance and help orchestrate the immune response. This family of cells can be separated by their nuclear morphology into mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes. The generation of these cells in the bone marrow, to the blood and finally into tissues is a tightly regulated process. Ensuring the adequate production of these cells and their timely removal is key for both the initiation and resolution of inflammation. Insight into the kinetic profiles of innate myeloid cells during steady state and pathology will permit the rational development of therapies to boost the production of these cells in times of need or reduce them when detrimental.

Keywords: homeostasis; inflammation; kinetics; mononuclear phagocyte; neutrophils.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology*
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Macrophages / immunology*
  • Monocytes / immunology*
  • Mononuclear Phagocyte System
  • Neutrophils / immunology*