Introduction: Large randomized trials testing the effect of a multifactorial weight-loss lifestyle intervention including Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on renal function are lacking. Here, we evaluated the 1-year efficacy of an intensive weight-loss intervention with an energy-reduced MedDiet (erMedDiet) plus increased physical activity (PA) on renal function.
Methods: Randomized controlled "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea-Plus" (PREDIMED-Plus) trial is conducted in 23 Spanish centers comprising 208 primary care clinics. Overweight/obese (n = 6,719) adults aged 55-75 years with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned (1:1) to an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention with an erMedDiet, PA promotion, and behavioral support (intervention) or usual-care advice to adhere to an energy-unrestricted MedDiet (control) between September 2013 and December 2016. The primary outcome was 1-year change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Secondary outcomes were changes in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), incidence of moderately/severely impaired eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and micro- to macroalbuminuria (UACR ≥30 mg/g), and reversion of moderately (45 to <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) to mildly impaired GFR (60 to <90 mL/min/1.73 m2) or micro- to macroalbuminuria.
Results: After 1 year, eGFR declined by 0.66 and 1.25 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 0.58 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI: 0.15-1.02). There were no between-group differences in mean UACR or micro- to macroalbuminuria changes. Moderately/severely impaired eGFR incidence and reversion of moderately to mildly impaired GFR were 40% lower (HR 0.60; 0.44-0.82) and 92% higher (HR 1.92; 1.35-2.73), respectively, in the intervention group.
Conclusions: The PREDIMED-Plus lifestyle intervention approach may preserve renal function and delay CKD progression in overweight/obese adults.
Keywords: Dietary intervention; Glomerular filtration rate; Kidney function; Mediterranean diet; PREDIMED-Plus; Weight loss.
© 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel.