Childhood multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C): a diagnostic and treatment guidance from the Rheumatology Study Group of the Italian Society of Pediatrics

Ital J Pediatr. 2021 Feb 8;47(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s13052-021-00980-2.


Background: Italy was the first Western country to be hit by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. There is now mounting evidence that a minority of children infected with SARS-CoV2 may experience a severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome, called Multisystem inflammatory Syndrome associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (MIS-C). To date no universally agreed approach is available for this disease. MAIN BODY: as Italy is now facing a second hity of COVID-19 cases, we fear a recrudescence of MIS-C cases. We have, therefore, decided to prepare a report that will help clinicians to face this novel and challenging disease. We propose a diagnostic algorithm, to help case definition and guide work-up, and a therapeutic approach. MIS-C should be promptly recognized, based on the presence of systemic inflammation and specific organ involvement. Early treatment is crucial, and it will be based on the combined use of corticosteroids, high-dose immunoglobulins and anti-cytokine treatments, depending on the severity of the disease. Ancillary treatments (such as. aspirin and thrombo-profilaxis) will be also discussed.

Conclusions: we propose a document that will help physicians to diagnose and treat MIS-C patients. Given the level of evidence available and the methodology used, this document should not be interpreted as a guideline; the final decision about the optimal management should still be taken by the caring physician, on an individual basis.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 / diagnosis*
  • COVID-19 / therapy*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / therapy*

Supplementary concepts

  • pediatric multisystem inflammatory disease, COVID-19 related