Unexpected redundancy of Gpr56 and Gpr97 during hematopoietic cell development and differentiation

Blood Adv. 2021 Feb 9;5(3):829-842. doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003693.


Integrated molecular signals regulate cell fate decisions in the embryonic aortic endothelium to drive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) generation during development. The G-protein-coupled receptor 56 (Gpr56, also called Adgrg1) is the most highly upregulated receptor gene in cells that take on hematopoietic fate and is expressed by adult bone marrow HSCs. Despite the requirement for Gpr56 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HS/PC) generation in zebrafish embryos and the highly upregulated expression of GPR56 in treatment-resistant leukemic patients, its function in normal mammalian hematopoiesis remains unclear. Here, we examine the role of Gpr56 in HS/PC development in Gpr56 conditional knockout (cKO) mouse embryos and Gpr knockout (KO) embryonic stem cell (ESC) hematopoietic differentiation cultures. Our results show a bias toward myeloid differentiation of Gpr56 cKO fetal liver HSCs and an increased definitive myeloid progenitor cell frequency in Gpr56KO ESC differentiation cultures. Surprisingly, we find that mouse Gpr97 can rescue Gpr56 morphant zebrafish hematopoietic generation, and that Gpr97 expression is upregulated in mouse Gpr56 deletion models. When both Gpr56 and Gpr97 are deleted in ESCs, no or few hematopoietic PCs (HPCs) are generated upon ESC differentiation. Together, our results reveal novel and redundant functions for these 2 G-protein coupled receptors in normal mammalian hematopoietic cell development and differentiation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Hematopoiesis / genetics
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics
  • Zebrafish* / genetics


  • Adgrg3 protein, mouse
  • GPR56 protein, mouse
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled