Advanced molecular and pathophysiologic characterization of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has revealed insights into promising targeted therapeutic approaches. Medical imaging plays a fundamental role in PCNSL diagnosis, staging, and response assessment. Institutional imaging variation and inconsistent clinical trial reporting diminishes the reliability and reproducibility of clinical response assessment. In this context, we aimed to: (1) critically review the use of advanced positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the setting of PCNSL; (2) provide results from an international survey of clinical sites describing the current practices for routine and advanced imaging, and (3) provide biologically based recommendations from the International PCNSL Collaborative Group (IPCG) on adaptation of standardized imaging practices. The IPCG provides PET and MRI consensus recommendations built upon previous recommendations for standardized brain tumor imaging protocols (BTIP) in primary and metastatic disease. A biologically integrated approach is provided to addresses the unique challenges associated with the imaging assessment of PCNSL. Detailed imaging parameters facilitate the adoption of these recommendations by researchers and clinicians. To enhance clinical feasibility, we have developed both "ideal" and "minimum standard" protocols at 3T and 1.5T MR systems that will facilitate widespread adoption.
Keywords: MRI; PCNSL; PET; imaging; primary central nervous system lymphoma.
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology.