The impact of the dependent care provision on individuals with spina bifida transitioning to adulthood

J Pediatr Urol. 2021 Jun;17(3):289.e1-289.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2021.01.019. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Abstract

Introduction: Under the Affordable Care Act, the Dependent Care Provision (DCP) was enacted in 2010 and expanded healthcare coverage for millions of young adults ages 19-25 by allowing them to stay on their parents' insurance until age 26. It is unknown whether the DCP has impacted young adults with SB who are at risk for lapses in insurance coverage as they transition into adult care.

Objective: Our aim was to determine the impact of the DCP on access to care (insurance status) and healthcare-quality (hospital admissions for potentially preventable conditions).

Methods: Using the National Inpatient Sample (an all-payor national dataset of hospital admissions), we analyzed pre/post DCP changes for admissions of SB patients ages 19-25. Our outcomes of interest were rates of insurance coverage and proportion of admissions due to potentially preventable conditions (UTI, pyelonephritis, skin conditions, osteomyelitis, sepsis, and pneumonia). Analysis included a difference-in-differences logistic regression model which compared the pre/post DCP difference (2006-s quarter of 2010 vs. 2011-2013) in patients ages 19-25 to the difference in patients ages 26-32 who were ineligible for the DCP policy.

Results: For admissions of SB patients ages 19-25, the DCP was not associated with improved insurance status compared to admissions ages 26-32 (0% vs. -0.4%, p = 0.10) and rates of private insurance decreased in both age groups, but more so in ages 26-32 (-2.0% vs. -3.9%, p < 0.001). Private insurance rates increased for admissions of white patients ages 19-25 but not for black and Hispanic groups. An increase in overall insurance status was also seen in young adults from high-income zip codes. Admissions for potentially preventable conditions increased in both age groups by a similar degree (+2.6% vs. +2.5%, p = 0.82).

Discussion: Under the Affordable Care Act, the DCP failed to improve rates of private insurance or decrease rates of noninsurance for admissions of young adults with SB. Certain race and socioeconomic groups benefited more from this national healthcare policy. Meanwhile, admissions for potentially preventable conditions are common in spina bifida patients, and increased over the study period, suggesting a need for further investigation into optimizing the delivery of healthcare to this complex patient population.

Conclusion: The DCP did not result in improved overall insurance rates or in improved rates of private insurance for admissions of SB patients 18-25 years old.

Keywords: Insurance; Patient protection and affordable care act; Spinal dysraphism; Transitional care; Urinary tract infections; Young adult.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Insurance Coverage
  • Logistic Models
  • Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act*
  • Spinal Dysraphism* / therapy
  • United States
  • Young Adult