(1) Background: Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are members of a family of proteases of major importance during orthodontic tooth movement. Their levels increase during orthodontic therapy and in periodontally affected tissues. Orthodontic fixed appliances retain dental plaque and can cause gingival inflammation. When gingival inflammation is present, the forces produced during orthodontic tooth movement can aggravate tissue reaction and cause the destruction of supportive periodontal tissue. This study aimed to identify biomarkers that facilitate the assessment of periodontal status during orthodontic treatment. (2) Methods: Our study was conducted on 111 patients who were about to receive fixed orthodontic treatment. We determined the salivary levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 and bleeding on probing (BOP) before applying the orthodontic fixed appliance (T1), one week after appliance placement (T2), and during orthodontic treatment, one month after non-surgical periodontal treatment (T3). (3) Results: Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment show a significant increase in BOP, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels one week after orthodontic appliance placement (T2) and a decrease in these parameters one month after periodontal treatment (T3). Statistically significant correlations were found between MMP-8 levels and BOP values at T1, T2, and T3. (4) Conclusion: In our study patients undergoing orthodontic treatment show a significant increase in BOP, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels one week after orthodontic appliance placement and a decrease in these parameters one month after periodontal treatment. Strong positive statistically significant correlations were found between MMP-8 levels and BOP and medium positive statistically significant correlations between MMP-9 and BOP values before and after orthodontic treatment and periodontal treatment. MMP-8, MMP-9, and BOP could be used to assess the periodontal status of orthodontic patients.
Keywords: biomarkers; inflammation; orthodontic treatment; periodontal treatment.