Myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for a significant proportion of death and morbidity in aged individuals. The risk for MI in females increases as they enter the peri-menopausal period, generally occurring in middle-age. Cytochrome (CYP) 450 metabolizes N-3 and N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) into numerous lipid mediators, oxylipids, which are further metabolised by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), reducing their activity. The objective of this study was to characterize oxylipid metabolism in the left ventricle (LV) following ischemic injury in females. Human LV specimens were procured from female patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) or non-failing controls (NFC). Female C57BL6 (WT) and sEH null mice averaging 13-16 months old underwent permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) to induce myocardial infarction. WT (wild type) mice received vehicle or sEH inhibitor, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (tAUCB), in their drinking water ad libitum for 28 days. Cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography and electrocardiogram. Protein expression was determined using immunoblotting, mitochondrial activity by spectrophotometry, and cardiac fibre respiration was measured using a Clark-type electrode. A full metabolite profile was determined by LC-MS/MS. sEH was significantly elevated in ischemic LV specimens from patients, associated with fundamental changes in oxylipid metabolite formation and significant decreases in mitochondrial enzymatic function. In mice, pre-treatment with tAUCB or genetic deletion of sEH significantly improved survival, preserved cardiac function, and maintained mitochondrial quality following MI in female mice. These data indicate that sEH may be a relevant pharmacologic target for women with MI. Although future studies are needed to determine the mechanisms, in this pilot study we suggest targeting sEH may be an effective strategy for reducing ischemic injury and mortality in middle-aged females.
Keywords: aging; explanted hearts; failing heart; ischemic injury; sex differences; soluble epoxide hydrolase.