In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), anemia develops gradually, which is primarily due to an inadequate synthesis of erythropoietin by the kidneys, as well as to iron disorders in the body, blood loss, shortened erythrocyte survival and inflammation. The currently accepted treatment employs iron, vitamin B12, folic acid supplementation and the use of erythropoiesis stimulants, which are administered only parenterally. Research is currently underway on the new erythropoiesis drugs that can be orally administered, i.e., hypoxia-inducible factor-propyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI) inhibitors which temporarily block propyl hydroxylase [PHD] catalysis and promote a transient increase in the expression of genes regulated by HIF, including kidney and liver erythropoietin [EPO]. Roxadustat is the first oral drug in this class and a potent HIF-PHD inhibitor, exerted to treat anemia in patients with CKD. In phase 1, 2 and 3 studies with CKD-affected patients, roxadustat was more effective to stimulate erythropoiesis for anemia correction than previously used drugs. Roxadustat can be orally given, unlike other erythropoiesis drugs with parenteral administration only, which grants roxadustat a considerable advantage. Our paper presents the results of studies with roxadustat applied for the treatment of anemia in CKD patients with or without dialysis. We are currently not yet able to know the exact role of roxadustat in the treatment of anemia in patients with CKD, but time will tell. It is possible that roxadustat has benefits an iron metabolism and cardiovascular risk.
Keywords: anemia; chronic kidney disease; roxadustat.