Large-area integration of two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures by wafer bonding

Nat Commun. 2021 Feb 10;12(1):917. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21136-0.


Integrating two-dimensional (2D) materials into semiconductor manufacturing lines is essential to exploit their material properties in a wide range of application areas. However, current approaches are not compatible with high-volume manufacturing on wafer level. Here, we report a generic methodology for large-area integration of 2D materials by adhesive wafer bonding. Our approach avoids manual handling and uses equipment, processes, and materials that are readily available in large-scale semiconductor manufacturing lines. We demonstrate the transfer of CVD graphene from copper foils (100-mm diameter) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) from SiO2/Si chips (centimeter-sized) to silicon wafers (100-mm diameter). Furthermore, we stack graphene with CVD hexagonal boron nitride and MoS2 layers to heterostructures, and fabricate encapsulated field-effect graphene devices, with high carrier mobilities of up to [Formula: see text]. Thus, our approach is suited for backend of the line integration of 2D materials on top of integrated circuits, with potential to accelerate progress in electronics, photonics, and sensing.