The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors remain key therapeutic drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the low-safety window limits their maximum therapeutic benefits. Here, a novel kinetics-driven drug design strategy was employed to discover new-generation AChE inhibitors that possess a longer drug-target residence time and exhibit a larger safety window. After detailed investigations, compound 12 was identified as a highly potent, highly selective, orally bioavailable, and brain preferentially distributed AChE inhibitor. Moreover, it significantly ameliorated cognitive impairments in different mouse models with a lower effective dose than donepezil. The X-ray structure of the cocrystal complex provided a precise binding mode between 12 and AChE. Besides, the data from the phase I trials demonstrated that 12 had good safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetic profiles at all preset doses in healthy volunteers, providing a solid basis for its further investigation in phase II trials for the treatment of AD.