The Beneficial Effect of Rice Bran Extract Against Rotenone-Induced Experimental Parkinson's Disease in Rats

Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2021;14(3):428-438. doi: 10.2174/1874467214666210126113324.


Background: Neurodegenerative diseases have become an increasing cause of various disabilities worldwide, followed by aging, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkinson's disease is a degenerative brain disorder distinguished by growing motor & non-motor failure due to the degeneration of medium-sized spiked neurons in the striatum region. Rotenone is often employed to originate the animal model of PD. It is a powerful blocker of mitochondrial complex-I, mitochondrial electron transport chain that reliably produces Parkinsonism-like symptoms in rats. Rice bran (RB) is very rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and nutritionally beneficial compounds, such as γ-oryzanol, tocopherols, and tocotrienols and sterols are believed to have favorable outcomes on oxidative stress & mitochondrial function.

Objective: The present study has been designed to explore RB extract's effect against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

Methods: In the present study, Rotenone (2 mg/kg, s.c) was administered systemically for 28 days. The hexane extract of RB was prepared using Soxhlation. Hexane extract (250 & 500 mg/kg) was administered per oral for 28 days in rotenone-treated groups. Behavioral parameters (grip strength, motor coordination, locomotion, and catalepsy) were conducted on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day. Animals were sacrificed on the 29th day for biochemical estimation in the striatum and cortex.

Results: This study demonstrates significant alteration in behavioral parameters, oxidative burden (increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, and decreased glutathione, catalase, SOD) in rotenone-treated animals. Administration of hexane extract of RB prevented the behavioral, biochemical alterations induced by rotenone. The current research has been sketched to inspect RB extract's effect against rotenone-developed neurotoxicity in rats.

Conclusion: The findings support that PD is associated with impairments in motor activity. The results also suggest that the nutraceutical rice bran that contains γ-oryzanol, Vitamin-E, ferulic acid etc., may underlie the adjuvant susceptibility towards rotenone-induced PD in experimental rats.

Keywords: Basal ganglia; Parkinson's disease; oxidative stress; rats.; rice bran; rotenone.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Oryza*
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Parkinson Disease* / etiology
  • Parkinsonian Disorders* / chemically induced
  • Parkinsonian Disorders* / complications
  • Rats
  • Rotenone / toxicity


  • Rotenone