Impact of age, ethnicity, sex and prior infection status on immunogenicity following a single dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: real-world evidence from healthcare workers, Israel, December 2020 to January 2021

Euro Surveill. 2021 Feb;26(6):2100096. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.6.2100096.


The BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine showed high efficacy in clinical trials but observational data from populations not included in trials are needed. We describe immunogenicity 21 days post-dose 1 among 514 Israeli healthcare workers by age, ethnicity, sex and prior COVID-19 infection. Immunogenicity was similar by ethnicity and sex but decreased with age. Those with prior infection had antibody titres one magnitude order higher than naïve individuals regardless of the presence of detectable IgG antibodies pre-vaccination.

Keywords: COVID-19; Israel; immunogenicity; vaccine.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • BNT162 Vaccine
  • COVID-19 / epidemiology
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / immunology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  • Ethnicity / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Health Personnel / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Immunogenicity, Vaccine*
  • Israel / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sex Factors
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology
  • mRNA Vaccines


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Synthetic
  • BNT162 Vaccine