Background: For patients with symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis (sICAS), endovascular treatment has been shown to be feasible and safe in recent studies. However, in-stent restenosis (ISR) risks the recurrence of ischemic stroke. We attempt to elucidate the risk factors for ISR. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 97 patients with sICAS from a prospective registry trial that included 20 centers from September 2013 to January 2015. Cases were classified into the ISR≥ 50% group or the ISR < 50% group. The baseline characteristics and long-term follow-up were compared between the two groups. Binary logistic regression analyses were identified as an association between ISR and endovascular technique factors. Results: According to whether ISR was detected by CT angiography, 97 patients were divided into the ISR group (n = 24) and the non-ISR group (n = 73). The admission baseline features and lesion angiography characteristics were similar, while plasma hs-CRP (mg/L) was higher in the ISR≥ 50% group at admission (8.2 ± 11.4 vs. 2.8 ± 4.1, p = 0.032). Binary logistic regression analysis identified the longer stents (adjusted OR 0.816, 95% CI 0.699-0.953; p = 0.010), balloon-mounted stents (adjusted OR 5.748, 95% CI 1.533-21.546; p = 0.009), and local anesthesia (adjusted OR 6.000, 95% CI 1.693-21.262; p = 0.006) as predictors of ISR at the 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: The longer stents, balloon-mounted stents implanted in the intracranial vertebral or basilar artery, and local anesthesia were significantly associated with in-stent restenosis. Further studies are required to identify accurate biomarkers or image markers associated with ISR in ICAS patients. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01968122.
Keywords: cerebrovascular disease; endovascular treatment; interventional neurology; intracranial in-stent restenosis; stroke.
Copyright © 2021 Guo, Ma, Gao, Mo, Luo and Miao.