Acne is an androgen-dependent inflammatory disease of sebaceous follicles. Herein, we reviewed and discussed the underlying pathways of androgen biosynthesis and metabolism, non-genomic regulation of androgen receptor expression and function, posttranslational regulation of androgen excess in acne and acne-associated syndromes, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We provide insights into the involvement of sex hormones, particularly androgens, in skin homeostasis and acne pathogenesis, including comedogenesis, lipogenesis, microbiota, and inflammation. Advanced understanding of the action mechanisms of classical acne treatment and new development of antiandrogens, both topical and systemic, are also highlighted.
© 2021 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.