Unique Molecular Interaction with the Histone Deacetylase 6 Catalytic Tunnel: Crystallographic and Biological Characterization of a Model Chemotype

J Med Chem. 2021 Mar 11;64(5):2691-2704. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01922. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Abstract

Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is involved in multiple regulatory processes, ranging from cellular stress to intracellular transport. Inhibition of aberrant HDAC6 activity in several cancers and neurological diseases has been shown to be efficacious in both preclinical and clinical studies. While selective HDAC6 targeting has been pursued as an alternative to pan-HDAC drugs, identifying truly selective molecular templates has not been trivial. Herein, we report a structure-activity relationship study yielding TO-317, which potently binds HDAC6 catalytic domain 2 (Ki = 0.7 nM) and inhibits the enzyme function (IC50 = 2 nM). TO-317 exhibits 158-fold selectivity for HDAC6 over other HDAC isozymes by binding the catalytic Zn2+ and, uniquely, making a never seen before direct hydrogen bond with the Zn2+ coordinating residue, His614. This novel structural motif targeting the second-sphere His614 interaction, observed in a 1.84 Å resolution crystal structure with drHDAC6 from zebrafish, can provide new pharmacophores for identifying enthalpically driven, high-affinity, HDAC6-selective inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Catalytic Domain
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Histone Deacetylase 6 / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Histone Deacetylase 6 / metabolism
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / chemical synthesis
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / metabolism
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxamic Acids / chemical synthesis
  • Hydroxamic Acids / metabolism
  • Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacokinetics
  • Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Molecular Structure
  • Protein Binding
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Sulfonamides / chemical synthesis
  • Sulfonamides / metabolism
  • Sulfonamides / pharmacokinetics
  • Sulfonamides / pharmacology*
  • Zebrafish
  • Zebrafish Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Zebrafish Proteins / metabolism

Substances

  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • Sulfonamides
  • Zebrafish Proteins
  • HDAC6 protein, human
  • Histone Deacetylase 6