Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of Children With Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia in China

Chest. 2021 May;159(5):1768-1781. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.02.006. Epub 2021 Feb 10.


Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a heterogeneous disease with a diverse clinical and genetic spectrum among populations worldwide. Few cases of pediatric PCD have been reported from China.

Research question: What are the clinical and genotypic characteristics of children with PCD in China?

Study design and methods: Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and genetic results obtained for 75 patients with PCD were reviewed retrospectively at a single center in China. Genetic sequencing was conducted using whole-exome screening.

Results: Patient median age at diagnosis was 7.0 years (range, 2 months-14 years). Of 75 patients, 88% (66/75) had chronic wet cough, 77% (58/75) had recurrent sinusitis, 76% (57/75) had bronchiectasis, 40% (30/75) had neonatal respiratory distress, and 28% (21/75) had coexistent asthma. Notably, postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) as first presentation was found in 8% of children (6/75). Genes with the highest incidence of mutations were DNAH11 (15/51), followed by DNAH5 (9/51), CCDC39 (5/51), DNAH1 (4/51), and CCNO (3/51). Four genes (DNAI1, HEATR2, RSPH9, and DNAAF3) each were respectively found in two patients, and seven genes (CCDC40, LRRC6, SPAG1, RSPH4A, ARMC4, CCDC114, and DNAH14, a novel gene) each were mutated once. No differences in classical clinical features were observed among patients with commonly observed PCD-associated genotypes. However, three of six PIBO patients carried DNAH1 mutations.

Interpretation: Besides typical clinical features, PIBO was observed as the first presentation of pediatric PCD in China. An association of the novel gene DNAH14 with PCD was observed, expanding the PCD genotypic spectrum.

Keywords: China; DNAH14; gene; postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans; primary ciliary dyskinesia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • China / epidemiology
  • Ciliary Motility Disorders / epidemiology
  • Ciliary Motility Disorders / genetics*
  • Dyneins / genetics*
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies


  • DNAH14 protein, human
  • Dyneins