Asymmetric profiles of infection and innate immunological responses in human iPS cell-derived small intestinal epithelial-like cell monolayers following infection with mammalian reovirus

Virus Res. 2021 Apr 15;296:198334. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198334. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Abstract

The intestinal mucosa plays an important role as an immune barrier due to its continual exposure to invading pathogens, including viruses. It is thus highly important to evaluate virus infection profiles in the intestinal mucosa for prevention of virus infection and development of antivirus medicines; however, only a few enterocyte lines are available as in vitro intestinal models for the evaluation of virus infection. In this study, we evaluated profiles of infection and innate immune responses following infection with a mammalian orthoreovirus (hereafter reovirus), which has often been used as a tractable model for studies of viral pathogenesis, in human iPS cell-derived small intestinal epithelial-like cell (hiPS-SIEC) monolayers and cells of a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2. The levels of reovirus infection were similar between hiPS-SIEC and Caco-2 cell monolayers, which are often used as an intestinal model, after apical and basolateral infection. In hiPS-SIEC monolayers, more efficient replication of the virus genome was observed following basolateral infection than apical infection, while apical infection resulted in higher levels of virus protein expression and progeny virus production than basolateral infection. Reovirus significantly induced innate immune responses, including expression of type I and III interferons (IFNs), in hiPS-SIEC monolayers more efficiently than Caco-2 cells. Higher levels of type I and III interferon (IFN) expression were found in hiPS-SIEC monolayers following apical infection than basolateral infection. These results suggested that hiPS-SIECs are a promising in vitro model for the evaluation of virus infection.

Keywords: Human iPS cells; Innate immunity; Reovirus; Small intestinal epithelial-like cells; Virus infection.