In the multidisciplinary management of early-stage extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL), with curative intent, radiation therapy is the most efficacious modality and is an essential component of a combined-modality regimen. In the past decade, utilization of upfront radiation therapy and non-anthracycline-based chemotherapy has improved treatment and prognosis. This guideline mainly addresses the heterogeneity of clinical features, principles of risk-adapted therapy, and the role and appropriate design of radiation therapy. Radiation therapy methods (including target volume definition, dose and delivery methods) are crucial for optimizing cure for patients with early-stage ENKTCL. The application of the principles of involved site radiation therapy in this lymphoma entity often leads to a more extended clinical target volume (CTV) than in other lymphoma types because it usually presents with primary tumor invasion, multifocal lesions, or extensive submucosal infiltration beyond the macroscopic disease. The CTV varies across different primary sites and is classified mainly into nasal, nonnasal upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), and extra-UADT entities. This review is a consensus of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group regarding the approach to radiation therapy, target-volume definition, optimal dose, and dose constraints in ENKTCL treatment.
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