A guidance on diagnosis and management of hyperglycemia at COVID care facilities in India

Diabetes Metab Syndr. Jan-Feb 2021;15(1):407-413. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.01.015. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Abstract

Background and aims: Diabetes and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share a bidirectional relationship. Hyperglycemia occurring in the setting of either previously diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes is known to be associated with poor outcomes. Here, we aim to provide a simple and practical guidance on the diagnosis and management of hyperglycemia in admitted patients with COVID-19.

Methods: The guidance is formulated based on experience of authors and relevant literature on the subject searched using Pubmed.

Results: Every patient admitted to a COVID care facility should be investigated for hyperglycemia using a combination of tests including capillary blood glucose, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Oral glucose lowering drugs can be considered in patients with mild COVID illness who have mild hyperglycemia [pre-meal blood glucose of <180 mg/dl (10 mmol/L) and post-meal blood glucose of <250 mg/dl (13.9 mmol/L)] and no contraindication to the use of these agents.. All patients with moderate-severe disease and/or hyperglycemia of greater severity should be initiated on insulin therapy. Hyperglycemia should be aggressively screened for and managed in patients receiving systemic glucocorticoids.

Conclusion: This document provides a broad overview on the diagnosis and management of hyperglycemia at COVID care facilities and should be useful to a wide range of healthcare personnel involved in care of patients with COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19; Diabetes; Hyperglycemia; Management; Screening.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • COVID-19 / diagnosis*
  • COVID-19 / epidemiology*
  • COVID-19 / therapy
  • Disease Management
  • Hospitalization / trends*
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / diagnosis*
  • Hyperglycemia / epidemiology*
  • Hyperglycemia / therapy
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • India / epidemiology
  • Mass Screening / standards
  • Mass Screening / trends*

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents