Background and aims: Diabetes and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share a bidirectional relationship. Hyperglycemia occurring in the setting of either previously diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes is known to be associated with poor outcomes. Here, we aim to provide a simple and practical guidance on the diagnosis and management of hyperglycemia in admitted patients with COVID-19.
Methods: The guidance is formulated based on experience of authors and relevant literature on the subject searched using Pubmed.
Results: Every patient admitted to a COVID care facility should be investigated for hyperglycemia using a combination of tests including capillary blood glucose, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Oral glucose lowering drugs can be considered in patients with mild COVID illness who have mild hyperglycemia [pre-meal blood glucose of <180 mg/dl (10 mmol/L) and post-meal blood glucose of <250 mg/dl (13.9 mmol/L)] and no contraindication to the use of these agents.. All patients with moderate-severe disease and/or hyperglycemia of greater severity should be initiated on insulin therapy. Hyperglycemia should be aggressively screened for and managed in patients receiving systemic glucocorticoids.
Conclusion: This document provides a broad overview on the diagnosis and management of hyperglycemia at COVID care facilities and should be useful to a wide range of healthcare personnel involved in care of patients with COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19; Diabetes; Hyperglycemia; Management; Screening.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.