Overview of COVID-19 and neurological complications

Rev Neurosci. 2021 Feb 15;32(6):671-691. doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2020-0116. Print 2021 Aug 26.


The sudden and storming onset of coronavirus 2 infection (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) was associated by severe acute respiratory syndrome. Recently, corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) has appeared as a pandemic throughout the world. The mutational nature of the virus, along with the different means of entering and spreading throughout the body has involved different organs. Thus, patients are faced with a wide range of symptoms and signs. Neurological symptoms, such as anosmia, agnosia, stroke, paralysis, cranial nerve deficits, encephalopathy, meningitis, delirium and seizures, are reported as common complications affecting the course of the disease and its treatment. In this review, special attention was paid to reports that addressed the acute or chronic neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients who may present acute respiratory syndrome or not. Moreover, we discussed the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) complications in SARS-Cov2-infected patients, and also the pathophysiology of neurological abnormalities in COVID-19.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Guillain Barre syndrome; cerebrovascular disease; corona virus 2; encephalopathy; multiple sclerosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Brain / virology*
  • COVID-19 / complications*
  • Humans
  • Nervous System Diseases / complications*
  • RNA, Viral
  • SARS-CoV-2 / pathogenicity*
  • Seizures / complications
  • Seizures / etiology
  • Stroke / complications*
  • Stroke / physiopathology


  • RNA, Viral