Hemodynamics and Clinical Implications of Occult Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Adults Undergoing Ebstein Anomaly Repair

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021 Feb;14(2):e011739. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.120.011739. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Abstract

Background: Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) can detect early phases of LV systolic dysfunction, but its application has not been studied in Ebstein anomaly. We hypothesized that LVGLS can detect early phases of LV systolic dysfunction and that patients with occult LV systolic dysfunction will have worse hemodynamics, end-organ dysfunction, and suboptimal postoperative LV reverse remodeling after tricuspid valve surgery in comparison to patients with normal LV systolic function.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 371 Ebstein patients that underwent tricuspid valve surgery were divided into 3 groups: normal LV systolic function (normal LVGLS and LV ejection fraction; n=244, 77%), occult LV systolic dysfunction (abnormal LVGLS with normal LV ejection fraction; n=44, 14%), and overt LV systolic dysfunction (abnormal LVGLS and LV ejection fraction; n=27, 9%).

Results: Compared with the normal LV function group, the occult group had smaller LV volume and cardiac output (2.1±0.4 versus 2.9±0.6 L/min per m2, P<0.001), worse end-organ dysfunction (glomerular filtration rate, 78±14 versus 91±18 mL/min per 1.73 m2, P=0.01), and suboptimal postoperative LV reverse remodeling. Although both the occult and overt groups had a similar degree of end-organ dysfunction (glomerular filtration rate, 78±14 versus 82±16 mL/min per 1.73 m2, P=0.3), the occult group was less likely to be on heart failure therapy (48% versus 96%, P<0.001).

Conclusions: Abnormal LVGLS was associated with suboptimal postoperative LV reverse remodeling. These data suggest that LVGLS can potentially be used for risk stratification and provides a foundation for further studies to determine whether optimal heart failure therapy or tricuspid valve intervention can improve outcomes for LV systolic dysfunction in patients with Ebstein anomaly.

Keywords: cardiac output; glomerular filtration rate; heart failure; hemodynamics; tricuspid valve.