Meningioma: A Pathology Perspective

Neurosurgery. 2021 Jun 15;89(1):11-21. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyab001.


Meningiomas are dural-based neoplasms that account for ∼37% of all intracranial tumors in the adult population. They can occur anywhere within the central nervous system and have a predilection for females. The World Health Organization classifies meningiomas into 3 grades based on increased risk of recurrence and associated mortality in grade III tumors. Although most tumors are categorized as low-grade, up to ∼15%-20% demonstrate more aggressive behavior. With the long-recognized association with neurofibromatosis type 2 gene mutation, putative driver mutations can be attributed to ∼80% of tumors. Several germline mutations have also been identified in some cases of familial meningiomatosis such as SMARCE1, SUFU, PTEN, and BAP1. Finally, in addition to genetic data, epigenetic alterations, specifically deoxyribonucleic acid methylation, are being increasingly recognized for their prognostic value, potentially adding objectivity to a currently subjective grading scheme.

Keywords: Cytogenetics; Histologic variants; Immunohistochemistry; Meningioma; Molecular; WHO grade.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Meningeal Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Meningioma* / genetics
  • Mutation
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Prognosis
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • Ubiquitin Thiolesterase


  • BAP1 protein, human
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • SMARCE1 protein, human
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Ubiquitin Thiolesterase