Purpose: Application of linear-quadratic (LQ) model to large fractional dose treatments is inconsistent with observed cell survival curves having a straight portion at high doses. We have proposed a unified multi-activation (UMA) model to fit cell survival curves over the entire dose range that allows us to calculate EQD2 for hypofractionated SBRT, SRT, SRS, and HDRB.
Methods: A unified formula of cell survival using only the extrapolation number of n and the dose slope of Do was derived. Coefficient of determination, R2 , relative residuals, r, and relative experimental errors, e, normalized to survival fraction at each dose point, were calculated to quantify the goodness in modeling of a survival curve. Analytical solutions for α and β, the coefficients respectively describe the linear and quadratic parts of the survival curve, as well as the α/β ratio for the LQ model and EQD2 at any fractional doses were derived for tumor cells undertaking any fractionated radiation therapy.
Results: Our proposed model fits survival curves of in-vivo and in-vitro tumor cells with R2 > 0.97 and r < e. The predicted α, β, and α/β ratio are significantly different from their values in the LQ model. Average EQD2 of 20-Gy SRS of glioblastomas and melanomas metastatic to the brain, 10-Gy × 5 SBRT of the lung cancer, and 7-Gy × 5 HDRB of endometrial and cervical carcinomas are 36.7 (24.3-48.5), 114.1 (86.6-173.1),, and 45.5 (35-52.6) Gy, different from the LQ model estimates of 50.0, 90.0, and 49.6 Gy, respectively.
Conclusion: Our UMA model validated through many tumor cell lines can fit cell survival curves over the entire dose range within their experimental errors. The unified formula theoretically indicates a common mechanism of cell inactivation and can estimate EQD2 at all dose levels.
Keywords: EQD2; HDR; Radiobiological Outcome modeling; SBRT; SRS.
© 2021 The Authors. Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.