Porphyrias are a family of rare diseases chiefly due to inborn errors of heme biosynthesis. The porphyrias are generally characterized either by the main site of overproduction of heme precursors (hepatic or erythropoietic) or the main clinical manifestations (acute or cutaneous). The regulation of 5- (or δ)-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) plays a key role in the pathway of normal hepatic heme synthesis, providing insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of the porphyrias. Givosiran (Givlaari; Alnylam Pharmaceuticals) is an ALAS1-directed small interfering RNA (siRNA) which has been developed for the treatment of acute hepatic porphyria (AHP). It was first approved in 2019 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of adult patients with AHP, and it received also approval in the E.U. in 2020 for the treatment of AHP in adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older.
Keywords: 5- (or δ)-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) expression inhibitors; Acute hepatic porphyria; Givosiran; Porphyria therapy; RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics; Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).
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