HOXA10 promotion of HDAC1 underpins the development of lung adenocarcinoma through the DNMT1-KLF4 axis

J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2021 Feb 17;40(1):71. doi: 10.1186/s13046-021-01867-0.


Background: Previous research has highlighted the ability of Homeobox A10 (HOXA10) to the promote proliferation, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation of various cancers, including lung adenocarcinoma (LAD), which is characterized by an aggressive disease course that exhibits rapid proliferation and migration, with studies suggesting histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) to be a downstream mediator of HOXA10. The current study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which HOXA10-mediated HDAC1 influences the development of LAD.

Methods: The expression patterns of HOXA10, HDAC1, DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), and Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) were determined. Additionally, the effect of HOXA10, HDAC1, or DNMT1 on invasive phenotypes of LAD was analyzed using depletion experiments. The interactions among HOXA10, HDAC1, DNMT1, and KLF4 were evaluated via chromatin immunoprecipitation, dual luciferase assay or co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, the tumorigenic ability of the LAD cells following HOXA10 silencing and/or HDAC1 overexpression in vivo was also investigated.

Results: In the LAD tissues and cells, HOXA10, HDAC1, and DNMT1 all exhibited high levels of expression, while KLF4 was poorly expressed. HOXA10 silencing inhibited the expression of HDAC1, reduced LAD cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and promoted the apoptosis. HDAC1 promoted DNMT1 expression through deacetylation, and DNMT1 inhibited the KLF4 expression through DNA methyltransferase. The in vitro findings were further attested through the use of in vivo assays.

Conclusion: Taken together, the key observations of the current study highlight the role of HOXA10 and HDAC1 in promoting the proliferation and migration of LAD cells. HOXA10-induced upregulation of HDAC1 interacts with DNMT1-KLF4 axis, while the inhibition of HOXA10 or HDAC1 represents a promising anti-tumor therapy target for LAD.

Keywords: DNMT1; Deacetylation; HDAC1; HOXA10; KLF4; Lung adenocarcinoma; Methylation.