Renal replacement therapy (RRT) after continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation significantly affects patients' quality of life and survival. To identify preoperative prognostic markers in patients requiring RRT after CF-LVAD implantation, we retrospectively reviewed data from patients who underwent implantation of a CF-LVAD at our institution during 2012-2017. Patients who required preoperative RRT were excluded. Preoperative and operative characteristics, as well as survival and adverse events, were compared between 74 (22.2%) patients requiring any duration of postoperative RRT and 259 (77.8%) not requiring RRT. Patients requiring RRT experienced more postoperative complications than patients who did not, including respiratory failure necessitating tracheostomy (35.7% vs 2.5%, p < 0.001), reoperation for bleeding (34.3% vs 11.7%, p < 0.001), and right heart failure necessitating perioperative mechanical circulatory support (32.4% vs 6.9%, p < 0.001). Patients requiring postoperative RRT also had poorer survival at 30 days (74.7% vs 98.8%), 6 months (48.2% vs 95.1%), and 12 months (45.3% vs 90.2%) (p < 0.001). Significant predictors of RRT after CF-LVAD implantation included urine proteinuria (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.7-7.6], p = 0.001), estimated glomerular filtration rate < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR 3.4, 95% CI [1.5-17.8], p = 0.004), and mean right atrial pressure to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ratio ≥ 0.54 (OR 2.6, 95% CI [1.3-5.], p = 0.01). Of the 74 RRT patients, 11 (14.9%) recovered renal function before discharge, 36 (48.6%) still required RRT after discharge, and 27 (36.5%) died before discharge. We conclude that preoperative renal and right ventricular dysfunction significantly predict postoperative renal failure and mortality after CF-LVAD implantation.
Keywords: Biomarker; Cardiorenal syndrome; Dialysis; LVAD; Renal insufficiency.