Background Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease usually affecting the lungs, although cardiac morbidity may be common. The risk of these outcomes and the characteristics that predict them remain largely unknown. This study investigates the epidemiology of heart failure, atrioventricular block, and ventricular tachycardia among patients with and without sarcoidosis. Methods and Results We identified California residents aged ≥21 years using the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development ambulatory surgery, emergency, or inpatient databases from 2005 to 2015. The risk of sarcoidosis on incident heart failure, atrioventricular block, and ventricular tachycardia were each determined. Linkage to the Social Security Death Index was used to ascertain overall mortality. Among 22 527 964 California residents, 19 762 patients with sarcoidosis (0.09%) were identified. Sarcoidosis was the strongest predictor of heart failure (hazard ratio [HR], 11.2; 95% CI, 10.7-11.7), atrioventricular block (HR, 117.7; 95% CI, 103.3-134.0), and ventricular tachycardia (HR, 26.1; 95% CI, 24.2-28.1) identified among all risk factors. The presence of any cardiac involvement best predicted each outcome. Approximately 22% (95% CI, 18%-26%) of the relationship between sarcoidosis and increased mortality was explained by the presence of at least 1 of these cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions The magnitude of risk associated with sarcoidosis as a predictor of heart failure, atrioventricular block, and ventricular tachycardia, exceeds all established risk factors. Surveillance for and anticipation of these outcomes among patients with sarcoidosis is indicated, and consideration of a sarcoidosis diagnosis may be prudent among patients with heart failure, atrioventricular block, or ventricular tachycardia.
Keywords: atrioventricular block; cardiac sarcoidosis; cardiomyopathy; sarcoidosis; ventricular tachycardia.