Purpose: To investigate the relationship between periodontal parameters and lipid profiles.
Subjects and methods: A total of 48 subjects with dyslipidemia, consisting of 33 subjects who did not receive lipid-lowering medication (NLM) and 15 subjects who did receive lipid-lowering medication (LM) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Sixteen systemically healthy subjects were recruited as controls. The plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured. The levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were determined. The variables related to high cholesterol levels, including age, gender, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI), were evaluated.
Results: The LM group had a statistically significantly higher CAL in comparison with either the control or the NLM groups. TG was statistically significantly correlated with PD (ρ = 0.398, p = 0.001) and CAL (ρ = 0.349, p = 0.005). HDL-C was negatively correlated with PI (ρ = -0.371, p = 0.003), GI (ρ = -0.284, p = 0.025), and PD (ρ = -0.289, p = 0.023). The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that BMI was statistically significantly associated with percentage of sites with BOP (β = 0.367, p = 0.003) and PD (β = 0.392, p = 0.002). CAL was statistically significantly influenced by age (β = 0.496, p < 0.001) and HDL-C (β = -0.259, p = 0.026).
Conclusion: TG and HDL-C levels were correlated with periodontal status. BMI was found to be a stronger predictor of periodontal inflammation than serum lipid levels. No benefit of lipid-lowering medication on periodontal status was revealed.
Keywords: body mass index; dyslipidemia; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; periodontal disease.