Background and purpose: Spot sign (SS) on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is associated with hematoma expansion (HE) and poor outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, its predictive performance varies across studies, possibly because differentiating hyperdense hemorrhage from contrast media is difficult. We investigated whether dual-energy-CTA (DE-CTA), which can separate hemorrhage from iodinated contrast, improves the diagnostic accuracy of SS for predicting HE.
Methods: Primary ICH patients undergoing DE-CTA (both arterial as well as delayed venous phase) and follow-up computed tomography were prospectively included between 2014 and 2019. SS was assessed on both arterial and delayed phase images of the different DE-CTA datasets, i.e., conventional-like mixed images, iodine images, and fusion images. Diagnostic accuracy of SS for prediction of HE was determined on all datasets. The association between SS and HE, and between SS and poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale at 3 months ≥3) was assessed with multivariable logistic regression, using the dataset with highest diagnostic accuracy.
Results: Of 139 included patients, 47 showed HE (33.8%). Sensitivity of SS for HE was 32% (accuracy 0.72) on conventional-like mixed arterial images which increased to 76% (accuracy 0.80) on delayed fusion images. Presence of SS on delayed fusion images was independently associated with HE (odds ratio [OR], 17.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.14 to 49.82) and poor outcome (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.16 to 12.73).
Conclusions: Presence of SS on DE-CTA, in particular on delayed phase fusion images, demonstrates higher diagnostic performance in predicting HE compared to conventional-like mixed imaging, and it is associated with poor outcome.
Keywords: Cerebral hemorrhage; Computed tomography angiography; Intracranial hemorrhages; Prognosis; Spot sign.