Circulating Myeloid Regulatory Cells: Promising Biomarkers in B-Cell Lymphomas

Front Immunol. 2021 Feb 2;11:623993. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.623993. eCollection 2020.


The monocyte/macrophage lineage has been shown to be involved in the promotion of a protumoral tumor microenvironment and resistance to treatment in B cell lymphomas. However, it is still poorly described at the single cell level, and tissue samples are not easily accessible. Thus, a detailed analysis of the circulating myeloid cell compartment in the different B lymphomas is needed to better understand the mechanisms of resistance to treatment and identify at risk patients. In this Perspective, we review current knowledge on the phenotypic and functional description of the circulating monocytic lineage in B cell lymphomas and provide first insights into the heterogeneity of these cell populations in health and lymphoma, using mass cytometry. Indeed, the monocytic compartment is a continuum more than distinct subpopulations, as demonstrated by our high-resolution approach, explaining the sometimes confusing and contradictory conclusions on the prognostic impact of the different populations, including monocytes and monocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells (M-MDSC). By identifying S100A9high monocytic cells as a potential biomarker in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in this proof-of-concept preliminary study including a limited number of samples, we underline the potential of circulating myeloid regulatory cells as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in B-cell lymphomas.

Keywords: biomarker; lymphoma; mass cytometry; monocyte; myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology*
  • Calgranulin B / immunology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / immunology*
  • Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells / immunology*
  • Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells / pathology
  • Tumor Microenvironment / immunology*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Calgranulin B
  • S100A9 protein, human