Clinical and Demographic Characteristics Including Comorbidities and Their Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in Four Tertiary Care Hospitals Across Lahore

Cureus. 2021 Jan 12;13(1):e12663. doi: 10.7759/cureus.12663.


Background The first case of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was diagnosed in Wuhan, China, in 2019. By the first half of 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) turned into a global pandemic. Objectives The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics including comorbidities and their outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in four tertiary care hospitals across Lahore. This retrospective study was conducted at Fatima Memorial Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore General Hospital, and Jinnah Hospital, all in Lahore, Pakistan, from May 1, 2020, to June 30, 2020. The sample size was 445, which was derived using the convenient sampling method. Clinical outcomes during hospitalization included the requirement of invasive positive pressure ventilation, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), and death. Data regarding demographics, baseline comorbidities, important vital signs on reporting, and initial workup with results were also collected. Results A total of 445 patients' data were studied, of whom 291 (65.4%) were male patients and 154 (34.6%) female patients. The median age was 54 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 24). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (HTN) (195; 43.8%) followed by diabetes mellitus (DM) (168; 37.8%) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (61; 13.7%). The median length of hospital stay was eight days (IQR: 3). Of the total patients, 137 (30.7%) were treated in intensive care unit settings, 40 (9%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, 40 (9%) patients had acute kidney injury, 38 (8.5%) received RRT, and 37 (8.3%) died. It was seen that more patients who were either diabetic or hypertensive received invasive mechanical ventilation as compared to those who did not have these comorbidities. The most common radiological finding on chest X-ray was the classical ground-glass appearance of COVID-19, which was found in 318 (71.4%) patients. Conclusions Patients with one or more underlying comorbidities had poor clinical outcomes compared to those with no comorbidities, with the most vulnerable group being patients with chronic kidney disease, DM, HTN, and CVD in descending order.

Keywords: comorbidities; coronavirus; covid-19; demographics; outcomes; sars-cov-2.